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淡水,是北臺灣人文發展極早的地區之一,是個迷人的「山城河港」。從史前時代以來,臺灣原住民、漢人、西班牙人、荷蘭人、日本人等,先後在此生活、傳教、貿易,孕育出在地特殊的人文風情,也留下不少珍貴的遺址與名勝古蹟。

Tamsui had some of the earliest cultural development in Northern Taiwan, and is an enchanting “riverside hill town.” Since prehistoric times, Taiwan's indigenous peoples, Chinese, Spanish, Dutch, and Japanese have lived, spread their religion, and engaged in in trade here, which has given the town a unique cultural ambiance, and it preserves numerous historic sites and ancient relics.

長久以來,平埔族人承襲大坌坑、十三行等史前文化,在此生活,乘竹筏橫渡淡水河。

Over the course of centuries, the Pingpu indigenous tribes, who were the heirs of the prehistoric Dabenkeng and Shisanhang cultures, lived here and crossed the Tamsui River on bamboo rafts.


1700年代(康熙晚年) 番社采風圖 渡溪 描繪平埔族人浮水推筏的情景。(中研院史語所版權)

During the 1700's (late Kangxi period), this genre painting of Taiwan's aboriginal people—Crossing the River—portrays Pingpu indigenous people pushing a bamboo raft through the water. (copyright by the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica)


1600-50年代,西班牙人與荷蘭人先後為建立貿易據點攻佔淡水,於河口北岸山丘分別建立聖多明哥城與安東尼堡(今紅毛城)。

From 1600 to 1650, the Spanish and then the Dutch successively occupied Tamsui, which they used as a trading post, and established Fort Antonio (today’s Fort San Domingo) on a hill on the north side of the mouth of the Tamsui River.

1654年,荷蘭人所繪製的「淡水及其附近村落並雞籠島之圖」可見安東尼堡(今紅毛城)

In 1654, the Dutch drew this "map of Tamsui, its surrounding villages, and Jilong Island," which shows Fort Antonio (today’s Fort San Domingo)

荷人與漢人移民為拓墾引入牛與牛車,牛車可能是臺灣最早開始使用的陸地交通工具,然淡水地區的牛車發跡較晚。

The Dutch and Chinese immigrants brought oxen and ox carts to Taiwan for use in farming. Ox carts were perhaps the earliest means of land transportation in Taiwan, but did not appear in the Tamsui area until lat-er.

臺灣早期使用的板輪牛車

One of the board-wheel ox carts used in Taiwan during early times.

1704年 康熙臺灣輿圖 北部地區 圖中可見當時淡水地區尚無使用牛車。(故宮版權)

The 1704 Kangxi Taiwan Map–northern Taiwan This map shows that ox carts were not yet in use in the Tamsui ar-ea at that time. (copyright by the National Palace Museum)

1680年代,清廷於臺灣設:一府:臺灣府,三縣:臺灣縣、鳳山縣、諸羅縣,淡水即屬諸羅縣。

During the 1680's, the Qing Dynasty established in Taiwan: one prefectural capital: Taiwan Fu, and three counties: Taiwan County, Fengshan County, and Juluo County; Tamsui was part of Juluo County.

1860年,清廷於英法聯軍失利後簽訂天津條約,淡水開港通商,以八里為通商碼頭、於滬尾(淡水)設立海關,然因八里攤淺、腹地小、迎東北風等原因,港務重心逐漸轉往淡水。此後貿易商船往來頻繁,外國洋行與傳教士匯聚,淡水成為北臺灣最大的港市與物產集散地,也成為西方文化登陸臺灣的門戶。

1860—After being defeated by joint Anglo-French forces, the Qing government was forced to sign the Trea-ty of Tientsin, which made Tamsui an open trading port, and made Bali a trading wharf. A customs house was established at Tamsui, but because of the shallow water, lack of hinterland, and exposure to the strong northeast wind at Bali, the center of port operations gradually shifted to Tamsui. Afterwards, trading vessels frequently called at Tamsui, and a cluster of funding trading companies and missionaries formed. As a result, Tamsui became the largest commercial center and entrepot in northern Taiwan, and served as a gateway for the entry of Western culture into Taiwan.

馬偕牧師於1872年定居於淡水,以此做為宣教、行醫和辦學教育的根據地。

Rev. George Leslie Mackay settled in Tamsui in 1872, and used it as a base for missionary, medical, and educa-tional activities.

1890年代 清法戰爭(1885)後,清廷積極建設臺灣,臺灣巡撫劉銘傳於北臺灣籌建鐵路,為今日縱貫線北段之前身。

During the 1890's, after the Sino-French War of 1885, the Qing government began active efforts to devel-opment Taiwan, and Provincial Governor Liu Ming-chuan embarked on the construction of a railway in northern Taiwan. This railway was the direct predecessor of the northern section of today's West Coast railway line.

1895日治初期臺北淡水河流域與「劉銘傳鐵路」線路圖(臺灣古地圖田野影像工作室版權)

In 1895, Japanese colonial direction map showing the Tamsui River basin, the early Taipei area, and "Liu Ming-chuan's railway" (copyright by the Taiwan Ancient Map Field Photograph Workshop)

1900 年代淡水港務正值興盛時期,而隨港口泥沙淤積日淺,加上1899年基隆港計畫啟動,使淡水港逐漸沒落。

The years around 1900 were the busiest time for the port of Tamsui, but the increasingly severe silting of the harbor, plus the beginning of the development of the port of Keelung in 1899, caused Tamsui's port to fall into decline.

19世紀末期淡水港景色

Tamsui harbor during the late 19th century

日治初期停留在今淡水公明街沿河的戎客船(典藏臺灣版權)

Junks tied up along the waterfront near today's Gongming Street during the Japanese colonial period (copyright by DigitalArchives.tw)

1920年日本政府在八里設八里莊,並在臺北州下設郡,與淡水、三芝、石門一街三莊同屬淡水郡轄管。

1920—The Japanese government established Balizhuang in Bali, and established counties under Taihoku Prefecture, with Tamsui, Sanzhi, and Shimen Yijie Sanzhuang all being made subordinate to Tamsui Coun-ty.

1922年淡水地區首次出現汽車;1933年淡水-臺北官營公共汽車開始營業。

1922—The first automobiles are used in the Tamsui area; 1933—The first government-run business ser-vice begins between Tamsui and Taipei.

臺灣重量級畫家陳澄波於1934至1936年間多次至淡水地區寫生繪畫,留下為數不少的素描稿與至少十餘幅尺寸大小不等的系列油畫作品,表現出兼容自然與人文景觀的淡水風光。

The heavyweight Taiwanese painter Tan Ting-pho visited the Tamsui area frequently between 1934 and 1936 to sketch and paint, and produced numerous sketches and ten or more large and small oil paintings of the area. These works portray the natural and human beauty of Tamsui.

財團法人陳澄波文教基金會 淡水夕照

Tan Ting-pho's "Tamsui Scenery

從日治時期至1971年代,淡水河兩岸的交通主要仍依靠渡船。

From the Japanese colonial period to the 1970's, ferry boats provided the main form of transportation be-tween the banks of the Tamsui River.



1971年代的淡水河渡船(國立臺灣美術館版權)

Ferry boat on the Tamsui River during the 1970's (copyright by the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts)

1983年關渡大橋完工

1983—Completion of the Guandu Bridge

1976年,臺灣省公路局(現交通部公路總局)為了北臺灣地區的交通與發展,規劃在八里關渡一帶興建一座可便利交通又兼顧國防需要的橋梁,隨後於1980年動工,1983年完工通車,它就是距離出海口約10公里,在淡江大橋完工前為淡水河流域最靠近出海口的一座橋梁。

In 1976, in order to promote transportation and development in northern Taiwan, the Taiwan Provincial Highway Bureau (today's Directorate General of Highways, MOTC) began planning a bridge that would fa-cilitate transportation and also meet defense needs in the Bali-Guandu area. Work began in 1980, and the bridge was completed and opened to traffic in 1983. The bridge is roughly 10km from the mouth of the Tamsui River. Until the Danjiang Bridge is completed, it will remain the bridge over the Tamsui River clos-est to its mouth at the sea.

關渡大橋與捷運淡水線列車(Eshium拍攝、CC BY-SA 3.0、https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%97%9C%E6%B8%A1%E5%A4%A7%E6%A9%8B)

The newly completed Guandu Bridge and the Taipei-Tamsui train (copyright by hhh134@seed.net.tw)